Here's an article reporting that "The online edition of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences reports that Cincinnati University (UC) researchers have discovered that apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV), a naturally produced protein that has the ability to reduce blood sugar levels and enhance insulin secretion, could be a potential target for a new diabetes treatment."
apoA-IV is produced by the small intestine in response to fat absorption and is present in elevated amounts in people who have had gastric bypass surgery, perhaps explaining the immediate reduction in insulin resistance many who have had this surgery experience.
Also from the article "The apoA-IV protein has such long half-life, i.e. between seven and eight hours says Tso, and in vitro tests have demonstrated that the protein does not affect glucose levels when given at low glucose concentrations. To the contrary, it seems to normalize glucose levels"
This study seems to confirm that T2 is a complex disease and adds to our knowledge of the mechanisms of insulin resistance. Hopefully an effective treatment will emerge from this research.