Key to Reversing Type 1 Diabetes Discovered

Hello Fellows. I would like to share with you this new article about a key point to reverse T1D recently discovered.

This article was recently published in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Feb 2010.
Members
of a research team at the center, led by Jerry Nadler, MD, professor and

chair of internal medicine and director of the center, have been studying the role of the enzyme 12-Lipoxygenase (12-LO) in the development of Type 1 diabetes. They hope that targeting this enzyme will hold the key to a cure.
Type
1 diabetes is a chronic condition that develops when the pancreas stops generating enough insulin to maintain normal levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Insulin moves

sugar from the bloodstream to cells so that it can be used to generate energy. In Type 1 diabetes, a person’s immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells, found only in the pancreas. When the beta cells die, the body no longer can produce enough insulin to regulate blood-glucose levels, and this can lead to serious health complications, even death, without treatment.
It
is generally understood that inflammation plays a vital role in beta-cell destruction. But the precise factors are not well known. A protein-based enzyme found in beta cells, 12-LO produces specific lipids that cause inflammation and can lead to the death of beta cells

in laboratory models. In fact, EVMS researchers have demonstrated that deleting the gene that produces 12-LO prevents the development of Type 1 diabetes in mice.
Dr.
Nadler explains that the challenge has been to validate that 12-LO and its pro-inflammatory lipid products have a role in human diabetes. Gaining access to human beta cells can be difficult, but EVMS is among a limited number of research groups that

can receive human islets – the region of the pancreas that contains beta cells – from individuals who have donated their bodies to science through the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Islet Resource Center Consortium.
Thanks
to that resource, the EVMS team has confirmed that 12-LO is indeed found in human islets, and in humans, like in mice, its pro-inflammatory lipid products can lead to lower insulin production and beta cell death.
“We’ve now confirmed that 12-LO is a
relevant target in humans, particularly in the pancreas, and will help lead to new therapies,” Dr. Kaiwen Ma says.
“That’s why these new
findings are so important,” Dr. Swarup K. Chakrabarti says. “The next

step will be to develop a drug that targets 12-LO and combine that with cell regeneration.”
“We
are currently working with investigators in California and the National Institutes of Health to identify ideal medications that would target 12-LO as a new treatment to halt immune

damage to human insulin-producing cells,” Dr. David A. Taylor-Fishwick says

So what happens if the person is past the honeymoon period and has no beta cells left to regenerate? Or do most diabetics have some but just not enough? This research sounds very hopeful. What is the time frame of it being tried on humans? My son was just diagnosed in November and is only 15 so I am hoping and praying for something soon.

Wow. That’s really encouraging. Hooray for JDRF and National Institutes of Health.

This is an excellent question. Thank you for asking.
My goal here is to inform and feel like this type of news sound to the ears of the community.
All the recent research that focus on stopping the degeneration of beta cell will be useful in early disease or while functioning beta cells. This type of research, if approved, will not be able to reverse diabetes in patients who have lost their beta cell function. For these patients, ongoing research most promising are related to stem cell transplants.

Hello Charles. Thank you for your participation.
JRDF and NIH are two important institutions abroad in the fight and the race for the discovery of the cure of diabetes. That funding and supporting for these studies keep coming.

Hey Doc, in the future I suggest you clarify this particular point
" All the recent research that focus on stopping the degeneration of beta cell will be useful in early disease or while functioning beta cells"
in the same post you make about a potential cure for type 1 diabetics. Last night I went to bed feeling pretty hopeful about the future (after reading your post) and now I feel like the rug has been pulled out from under me. While this is obviously great news for the newly diagnosed and for parents (like myself) who fear the possibility of their children being diagnosed, to the rest of us it’s like offering a handful of bacon to a starving dog and then stuffing it back in your pocket.

I am not a doctor but I have been doing a lot of research on this topic and there are a number of teams that are working on islet cell regeneration (Dr. Faustman). So my understanding would be if they are able to find the gene that started the immune response in the first place then the regenerated islet cells would be protected from attack? I do understand how you feel however when it comes to stem cell research because it looks like only people who have some functioning islet cells could benefit and I have been a D for 33 years so that would not help a lot of us:(

Hello Pavlos. Thank you for share your feelings and thank you for the tip.
I saw that you are Greek. I’ve been to Poros and Hydra as well as Athens and loved his country and people. Are similar to the Brazilians, and always clearly express their emotions, which I think very positive. Sorry if you felt as if his carpet had been pulled because it was not my intention. My intention is clearly to keep comuniade of people with diabetes informed about the news that fill us with hope of finding a cure for diabetes. It is possible that we are in the decade find that healing. Specifically my blog post was about a survey that attempts to prevent the inflammation of the beta cell and thus reverse the disease in its early stages. But do not be discouraged. There are several ongoing research involving stem cells that are also very promising. I promise to post updates in this area as well. Really suggest that you share the joy with each discovery and development, it shows that we are all struggling to find a cure for diabetes, especially type 1 diabetes. Keep the flame of hope makes us strong and motivated to continue with the best care of diabetes and thus stay healthy to enjoy the possible cure. Be strong and positive.
Big hug

Would this help islet cell transplants to be more successful?

Hello Michele. You’re right in saying that more research will be trying to reverse the death of beta cells, and this will benefit the newly diagnosed pacietes. As the stem cells, the hope is to develop them and turn them into beta cells. Unlike the Beta cell transplantation, the transplantation of stem cells combined with an immune therapy reset may help people with greater diagnostic time. So keep well and without complications is essential to enjoy this future to come.
Thank you for sharing with us their information. As I saw that many people are interested in the topic of stem cell transplants, will put a link today on the subject.
Hugs

After the transplant, we have to protect the beta cell. So this discovery could indeed be useful after transplants.

ditto

How i promisse, something about Mesenchymal Stem Cells transplantation
Research on Stem Cells in Treatment of Diabetes

Recent discoveries and studies are successful doing science world eyes return to Brazil. It is a team of scientists from the University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, has achieved outstanding results in research with stem and due to the success were highlighted in major journals worldwide, including the Jama (Journal of the American Medical Association).

The news was presented recently during a talk at the State Institute of Diabetes and Endocrinology Luiz Capriglione (IEDE), In Rio de Janeiro, made by Eduardo Couri, A leader of the research.

Hematopoietic Stem

One of the protocols presented was the "Autologous Transplantation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Patients with Newly Diagnosed DM1. According to Dr. Eduardo Couri, is initially made a collection of stem cells Hematopoietic and then they are frozen. After two weeks, it is the severe immunosuppression in order to completely destroy immune “Defective” the person with diabetes.

“It’s like a shutdown of the immune system with chemotherapy in a hospital environment, using drugs such as cyclophosphamide and antithymocyte globulin intravenous for five days,” says the doctor.

According to him, then the immune system is “reconnected” with the use of hematopoietic stem cells from the patient. Occurs what we call ‘reset immune’, causing the immune system to stop attacking pancreatic beta-cells. Thus, the remaining beta cells, which have not been destroyed, tend to produce insulin properly again, "he said. “This is why we only work with people in the onset of diabetes, aged between 12 and 35 years, with less than six weeks of diagnosis,” he adds.

The method showed excellent results: the 23 people who participated in the process, 20 stopped using insulin at some point, and 12 remained continuously free and 8 temporarily. "They are not cured, but controlled and free insulin. They have done a Alimentary Education and currently monitor the glucose and daily practice physical activities constantly, "says the doctor.

Mesenchymal Stem

The second protocol was presented which uses infusion of mesenchymal stem cells, taken from the bone marrow of a first-degree relative of the patient. According to Dr. Eduardo Couri, in animal studies, these cells showed the ability to block the phenomenon of autoimmunity and promote the regeneration of beta cells, reversing the Type 1 diabetes.

The treatment is as follows: the donor, which can only be a first-degree relative, receive general anesthesia for the collection of bone marrow cells. Then, the mesenchymal cells are proliferating in the laboratory. Subsequently, the patient receives consecutive intravenous infusions of these cells. According to Dr. Eduardo Couri, infusions are simple, not involving prolonged hospitalization. Once deployed, they migrate to the inflamed tissue (in case the pancreas) and settle there.

This procedure is being done only in people aged 12 to 35 yearsWith less than four weeks of diabetes. “In that first moment, we are working with newly diagnosed diabetes, but we will soon, depending on the results, carry it in people with long-term, which is the majority,” said the doctor.

To date, three patients participated. Of these, one of them managed to be free of insulin, however, the diabetes is uncontrolled. “We are in the research phase of thinking more than acting, we must agree doses, assess risks, and then begin treatment for those with diabetes for longer,” he says.

Pioneering

According to Dr. Eduardo Couri, other research has been conducted around the world, but the group of Ribeirão Preto is a pioneer, the greatest number of patients included and the greatest return. A major limitation, however, is the high cost of procedures, since the methods require the-art laboratories and personnel types within.

For the president of SBEM and director of IEDE, Dr. Ricardo Meirelles, the studies are extremely important to improve the lives of patients with diabetes. "In recent years we have had many advances in the treatment, but certainly the recovery of pancreatic cells, or at least preserve them, is the best way you can prevent diabetes continues to evolve and, therefore, appears to be one of the most promising treatment in time, "he said. “It’s a matter of pride for Brazil,” he adds.