Hi topcat and welcome to the best place on earth to come when you've just been diagnosed with Diabetes! Stop being so hard on yourself! We all were ignorant before we started on this path. I guessed I had diabetes from my symptoms and asked for a blood test. When I called the nurse said my fasting blood sugar was 325. I had no idea what the number meant, I just said, "does that mean I have diabetes?" Then I went blithely on my way with a prescription in hand, and happy that the cde or dietician whatever she was said, "you don't have to change anything" when I told her I was a vegetarian and ate lots of pasta and rice. It took a long time before I knew enough to say, "WHAT?" Oh yeah, and I accepted that I was Type 2 for 15 months before I realized I was actually type 1.
Yes, it is overwhelming and confusing and scary! All the above. What it is NOT is your fault. You did NOT bring this on yourself. Type 2 diabetes is a complex condition and its causes are not completely understood (ditto type 1).
No unfortunately there is no "idiots 7 day menu guide" because we are all different. Yep, as you've gathered carbs make your blood sugar rise, so the less carbs the less your blood sugar rises. Simple? Not really. We all have different foods that send our blood sugar through the roof and some that we can tolerate in reasonable amounts. For example, I don't even bother trying to eat rice or cereal. I've tried. It doesn't work. But I do eat some pasta and some potatoes and some bread. Some. Some of the time.
We have lots of sayings and acronyms on here. One of the best that will help you with your question, "what can I eat?" It's this: "Eat to your meter." What does that mean. Try one of your favorite foods and test your blood sugar two hours later. if you are high (most of us define high as over 140) try it again, only a smaller portion. Add more vegies to the pasta, or add a salad instead of a second serving. Or have a second vegie or salad with your pork chop instead of a baked potato. Test again two hours later. Wash, rinse, repeat. Write it all down. Soon you will begin to get answers to your question of "what can I eat?" Try open faced sandwiches, try wrapping in lettuce, etc. Drink herbal iced tea instead of soda. Etc. Unfortunately, what I CAN tell you is "pasta and potatoes can't be your main foods" anymore. Are you a vegetarian or do you eat meat and fish? If you eat meat and fish then those proteins with healthy (and tasty!! gotta be tasty or you won't eat it!) fresh vegetables and salads should be the center of your diet.
Unfortunately I can't totally advise you as a Type 2 because as a Type 1 insulin is a big part of the equation. But others on here will make suggestions, for example about exercise (something I know NOTHING about!).
Your GP isn't off the mark, just too general. If you are overweight and lose weight you will lower your insulin resistance which is the hallmark of Type 2 diabetes and why your blood sugar keeps spiking. So start a program of weight loss but one you can live with ongoing, not a radical diet you will put up with for 2 weeks, then feel deprived and splurge. Slow and steady.
As I said I can't help with some of the Type 2 particulars, but can tell you that you are indeed welcome and will find help, information and caring in this place!