Harvard Political Review article (link at bottom) seems to be more on top of the “funny money” business - kickbacks - that those in the pharma industry use to escalate prices at the cost of consumers.
My personal history:
35 years ago a vial of animal-origin Regular or NPH was about $7 at the pharmacy.
25 years ago price had risen to closer to $13.
20 years ago I transitioned off animal-source to humullin R and N, about $25 at pharrmacy.
Above prices, I all paid out-of-pocket. Was not a big problem even though (for most all the time) I was a student with just a part time job.
10-15 years ago I transitioned from R and N to Humalog and then Lantus. Price at the time was $80-$90 a vial but I now had a real job and decent insurance that paid for almost all of it.
Today the prices are $200 (or more) per vial.